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LSS THOMAS LINCOLN

LIBRARY MO D5

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JOURNAL

OF

The Academy of Natural Sciences

OF

PHILADELPHIA.

VOLUME XI, SECOND SERIES

PHILADELPHIA : PRINTED FOR THE ACADEMY. 1897-1901.

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CONTENTS:

Jevalayde IL, I.—Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Georgia Coast. By Clarence B. Moore. Plates I-XVI and Frontispiece)

I1.—Inhumation and Incineration in Europe. By the Marquis de Nadaillac

IPA ERY JUL

I11.—Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Coast of South Carolina. By Clarence B. Moore. (Plate XVII) . :

IV.—Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Savannah River. By Clarence B. Moore V.—Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Altamaha River. By Clarence B. Moore VI.—Recent Acquisitions. By Clarence B. Moore

VII.—A Cache of Pendant Ornaments. By Clarence B. Moore .

VIII.—Vertebrate Remains from Port Kennedy Bone Deposit. By Edward D. Cope. (Plates XVIII, XIX, XX and XX1) : ; : :

IX.—The Bone Cave at Port Kennedy, Pennsylvania, and its Partial Excavation in 1894, 1895, 1896. By Henry C. Mercer

IPAUR ID OE X.—Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Alabama River. By Clarence B. Moore X1.—Certain Antiquities of the Florida West-Coast. By Clarence B. Moore

XII.—The Osteology of Vulpes macrotis. By Dr. R. W. Shufeldt. (Plates XXII and X XIIT) . ; , ; :

Jeuesdt JW

XIiI.—Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida Coast. Part 1. By Clarence B. Moore

XIV.—Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Tombigbee River. By Clarence B. Moore .

t Extra copies printed for the author, August 31, 1897.

2 Extra copies printed for the author, July 29, 1898.

3 Extra copies printed February 9, 1899.

4 Extra copies printed for the author, April 24, 1899.

5 Extra copies printed for the author, August 1, 1899.

6 Extra copies printed for the author, July 27, 1900.

7 Extra copies printed for the author, September 6, 1900. 8 Extra copies printed for the author, August 27, 1901.

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INDEX OF SPECIES, ETC.,

REFERRED TO OR DESCRIBED.

New Species are Printed in Small Capitals, Synonyms in Italics.

Agricola, 205. Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 277, 281. Anaptogonia, 201-204. hiatidens, 201, 203, 205, 29: rutila, 201-203. Aphodius micans, 281, scutellaris, 281. Area incongrua, 163, Arcotherium, 221. pristinum, 220, Arctodus pristinus, 220. Arvicola, 203. Arvicola, 204. didelta, 207. involuta, 208. sigmodus. 207. tetradelta, 207. (Anaptogonia) hiatidens, )

|

(Isodelta) speothen, 206, | (Pitymus) tetradelta, 206. |

Blarina brevicauda, 219. SIMPLICIDENS, 219, 280.

Bos, 280.

Brachypsalis, 230.

Callista gigantea, 427.

Canide, 396.

Canis, 247, 396. cinero-argentatus, 397. familiaris, 407. fulvipes, 397. gigas, 227. indianensis, 227. lagopus, 404. latrans, 227, 397-404. littoralis, 397, 399, 403. lupus, 227. PRISCOLATRANS, 227, 280. procynoides, 404. vulpes, 404.

Carabidee, 281. |

Cardium, 55, 113, 163, 359. magnum, 323,

Cariacus, 266, 280. campestris, 266. leevicornis, 265, 266, 280. | virginianus, 265, 266.

Carya alba, 281. porcina, 277, 278, 281.

Cassis cameo, 323.

Castor canadensis, 200. fiber, 200, 279.

_ Cervalus americanus, 265.

Cervus canadensis, 264.

| Chelopus, 195.

Chlenus punctatissimus, 280. Cistudinidee, 196. Clemmys insulpta, 194, 196, 280. PERCRASSUS, 194, 280. Coassus, 265, 266. Copris punctulatus, 281. Corylus americanus, 278, 281. Crategus, 281. erus-galli, 277, 281. Crocuta inexpectata, 248. Cychrus minor, 280. wheatleyi, 280. Cymindys aurora, 280. Cyon, 396.

Dicelus alutaceus, 281. Dicotyles, 259. labiatus, 261, 262. pennsylvanicus, 262. Dinobastis, 248.

| Diorite, 92. | Dolerite, 92.

Dosinia discus, 69.

Kmydidee, 195.

Equus, 254. eaballus, 156, 258. complicatus, 255,256, 259. erenidens, 255, 256. cumminsli, 255, 256. eurystylus, 255. fraternus, 255-259, 280. fraternus fraternus, 256. fraternus pectinatus, 256,

259, 280.

intermedius, 255, 256,259. major, 259. minutus, 255. occidentalis, 255, 256. semiplicatus, 255. tau, 255.

Ereptodon priscus, 219.

Erithizon cloacinum, 199. epixanthum, 198. dorsatum, 198, 199, 279.

Evotomys, 202.

| Evotomys, 201.

Fagus ferruginea, 281. Fasciolaria, 381. gigantea, 359, 391, 393. tulipa, 359.

Felis, 248, 247. eyra, 250, 280. pardalis, 251. Felsite, 307, 326, Fennecus, 396. Fratercula arctica, 34. Iulleriue, 4, BG, Br, 7S), Wee, Tale, 323, 359, 381, 459. eanaliculatum, 63. carica, 22, 63, 111, 112, 121. parversum, 13, 19, 63, 79, 383-393.

| Gallinago, 280.

| Granulyte, 341.

Gulo luscus, 229, 273, 280.

Halizetus leucocephalus, 17. Hemiotomys, 205. Hesperomys, 279. leucopus, 201. Hippidium, 256. Histeridee, 281. Holomeniscus sulcatus, 265. vitakerianus, 265, Homo, 413, 415, 417. Hyeena, 410. Hyeenarctos, 221. Hypudeeus, 202. Hypudeus, 201.

| Hyrax, 416.

| Ietieyon, 396.

venaticus, 403, 404. Tsodelta, 205.

Jaculus hudsonius, 200. Juglans glabra, 278.

Lagomys palatinus, 209, 280. Lepus americanus, 209. sylvaticus, 209, 210, 280. Lestodon, 215. Littorina irrornata, 19, 149, 158. utra, 23055237, canadensis, 238, 239. rhoadsii, 238, 280. Lycalopex. 396. Lyeaon, 396. Lynx, 251. calearatus, 250, 280. canadensis, 261. rufus, 251. rufus, 250,

INDEX TO SPECIES, ETC.

Macherodus, 239, 241, 247. eatocapis, 240. cultridens, 240. gracilis, 240, 280. mereeril, 240.

Marginella, 163, 321, 446.

Mastodon americanus, 252, 280.

Megalonyx dissimilis, 211, 213. jeffersonii, 210-219. loxodon, 210-212, 280. SCALPER, 218, 219, 280. sphenodon, 211, 216.

_tortulus, 210, 211, 216, 217, 280. wheatleyi, 210-218, 280.

Meleagris altus, 280.

Mephitis, 230-232, 237, 280. fossidens, 231-236, 280. LEPTOPS, 235. leptops, 232, 236, 280. mephitieca, 221-236. OBTUSATUS, 236. obtusatus, 232-236, 280. orthosticus, 232-237, 280. putorius, 231-236.

Microtus, 201-208. agrestis, 205. amphibius, 205. arvalis, 205. arvicoloides, 205. campestris, 205. dideltus, 205, 207,208,279. diluvianus, 205, 279. involutus, 205, 208, 279. nivalis, 205. pinetorum, 204-208, principalis, 205. ratticeps, 205. riparius, 205. savil, 205. sigmodus, 205. speothen, 205-207, 279. subterraneus, 205. townsendu, 205. xanthognathus, 205,

Mustela americana, 229. DILUVIANA, 229, diluviana, 280. martes, 229. pennanti, 229.

Mylodon, 211, 215, 278. harlani, 210, 280.

Mylohyus, 259, 273, 280. nasutus, 259, 261-263,280. pennsylvanicus, 259-263,

280. TETRAGONUS, 260. tetragonus, 209, 261-263, 280. Myonomes, 205.

Notiosorex, 219, 220. Nyctereutes, 396.

| Phenacomys,

Oliva literata, 163. Olivella, 112, 125. Ophenodon, 211. Ophidia, 197. Orinthorhynehus, 416, Osmotherium, 230. SPELZUM, 231, 280. Otoeyon, 396. lalandii, 399, 403. megalotis, 404.

Paludicola, 205. Pecten, 359. nodosum, 86,

Pelycictis, 237.

lobulatus, 237, 280. Phanzeus antiquus, 281. 201.

Pinus rigida, 277, 281. Pitymys, 205, 206. Platanus, 277.

Platygonus, 259. Potamotherium, 230. Praotherium palatinum, 209, Prunus, 281.

Pterostichus levigatus, 280.

longipennis, 280

Putorius vittatus, 237.

Quercus alba, 278, 281. macrocarpa, 278, 281. palustris, 277, 281.

Rana, 280. Rhinoclemmys, 195.

Salix, 277.

Saprinus ebeninus, 281.

Scalops, 280.

Searabzeidee, 281.

Schistodelta suleata, 206.

Sciurus calycinus, 199, 279. hudsonius 199, panolius, 199, 200.

Smilodon, 241, 246. fatalis, 240. floridanus, 240.

gracilis, 240, 245-249, eee 273

gracilis, 240, 243. merceril, 245, 247, 280. neogaeus, 240. Sorex, 220. Sphagnum, 277, 281. Spilogale, 231. Strombus gigas, 63, 188, 359, 374, 392. pugilis, 359, 360. Sycium, 201, CLOACINUM, 203, 279. Syenite, 346.

Tapirus, 253. americanus, 253. americanus fossilis, 253. haysii, 253, 273, 280. roulinii, 253. terrestris, 253, 254. Taxidea americana, 239, 280. Teleopternus, 263. occidentalis, 264, Terrapene clausa, 196. Terrapenidee, 196. Testudo, 195. Tetrabelodon productus, Tetramerodon, 205. TOXASPIS ANGUILLULATUS, 196, 280. ornata, 196. Tremarctos ornatus, 221-226.

280.

252

Uncia, 241, 243, 246-249,

inexpectata, 240,

249, 280. mercerti, 245. pardus, 243. atrox, 249.

Unio crassidens, 310. cuvierianus, 19. dolabriformis, 123. heros, 323. roanokensis, 123. shepardianus, 22, 64, 123.

Ursus americanus, 226, 280, 410. arctos, 223, 224. boncerensis, 221. brasiliensis, 221. floridanus, 379. haplodon, 220

273, 280. (Tremarctos)

221. horribilis, 221. maritimus, 223, 224. ornatus, 221, pristinus, 221, 226. simus 221, 226.

243-

?

haplodon,

Vermicularia, nigricans, 379.

Vespertilio, 280.

Vulpes, 247. 396. alopex, 228. cinereoargentatus,

280, LATIDENTATUS, 228, 280. latidentatus, 280. marcrotis, 395, 418. velox, 395-401, 407.

ZAMENIS ACUMINATUS, 197, 280. constrictor, 197, 198. testaceus,, 197, 198.

Zapus hudsonius, 200, 279.

JOURN. ACAD. NAT. SCI. PHILAD., 2ND SER., VOL. XI.

VESSEL A (BURIAL No. 38).

MOORE:

GEORGIA COAST MOUNDS.

MOUND ON ST. CATHERINE’S ISLAND. (TWO-THIRDS SIZE.)

t Tiheslinicke Caer

G ~

- NS g = ( = ys By

= ff) /MAP OF THE CEORCIA COAST 4 Gee :

Xindicates a mound.

JOURNAL

OF

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES

Oe EADE Ie rls:

CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST. By CuaArence B. Moore.

Our thanks are tendered for material assistance in this work to the Marquis de Nadaillac, to Dr. E. Goldsmith, and to Professors Putnam, Holmes and Pilsbry. Our acknowledgments are due also for the aid extended by our lamented friend, the late Professor Cope.

Again we have to thank Dr. M. G. Miller for continuous assistance in the field and in the preparation of this report.

June, 1897. Ge. 1Bs WL

As the reader is aware, an inland passage by water, parallel to the ocean, enables vessels of light draft to traverse the entire coast of Georgia without ven- turing to sea or incurring risk greater than the minimum one of crossing certain sounds at a distance from the open water.

This marine highway, shown on ordinary maps, is connected with a net-work of waterways and tributary streams, many appearing on sectional charts alone,} enclosing considerable fertile territory suitable for living sites, and great tracts of low-lying marsh.

Fish and oysters are abundant in this region, and were doubtless still more so in early times, but great deposits* of oyster shells are not so numerous as on the

‘U.S. Government Charts, Nos. 156, 157, 158. » The circular enclosure on Sapelo Island and a great causeway on Barbour’s Island are the only

shell deposits of importance met with by us on the Georgia coast. A considerable shell deposit on St. Simon Island has been reported. We haye not seen it.

1 JOURN. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. XI.

6 CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST.

Florida coast, nor do they compare in size with the great heaps of fresh-water shells so noticeable on the St. Johns River.

Before proceeding to a detailed description of certain coast mounds of Georgia, we wish to point out that it has not been our intention to investigate each mound included within the limits of the entire territory, as we have done on the St. Johns and the Ocklawaha Rivers, Florida, but rather, by demolishing a considerable num- ber, to give a general idea of the aboriginal earth-works of the territory bordering the Georgia coast.

Five months of continual work have been devoted by us to the coast mounds of Georgia, during which time most of the territory has again and agai been traversed by steam motive power, so that but little time has been consumed in transit. A few important mounds still remain unexamined, through no fault of ours, however, notably at the north end of Ossabaw Island and on the islands of St. Simon and Sapelo.

But little work has been previously done among the mounds of the Georgia coast. The late Col. C. C. Jones, whose interesting work? we have largely consulted, occasionally refers to certain objects as derived from coast mounds, but nowhere makes reference to any systematic explorations.* The territory is virtually a new one for the archeologist, though relic hunters have at times left traces of their work in the shape of comparatively small trenches or superficial excavations near the summits of certain mounds.

Before proceeding to a detailed description of our mound work it may be well to make clear to the lay reader certain terms frequently to be used by us.

The “bunched” burial, which we found to predominate in Florida when the condition of the bones made determination possible, is present also in the coast mounds of Georgia, though to a much more limited extent. This method of imterment consisted of bunching together a number of bones ; sometimes the skull and long bones of one individual with perhaps some of the smaller bones, or in others, taking parts of the skeletons of two or three individuals and burying them in a heap together. The exposure of the dead body until deprived of flesh, prior to inhumation, was a common aboriginal custom. In Fig. 1 we give a ONE fs representation of a typical bunched burial.

Fee Aenea aban om (Nonen erate) In the Georgia coast mounds the burial

in anatomical order exceeded all others, though it is not unlikely that many at least of the skeletons had suffered exposure _

1“ Antiquities of the Southern Indians.” » See also “A Primitive Urn Burial,” Smithsonian Report, 1890, p. 609 et seq., by Dr. J. F. Snyder, in relation to Southern Georgia.

CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST. 7

previous to inhumation but were held together by ligaments when placed in the sand. Occasionally, some bone or bones in a position not to be accounted for under the hypothesis of shifting sand, testifies to this.

Of the burials in anatomical order, the “flexed” burial predominates. This form consists in placing the remains usually on the right or on the left side and

Fig. 2.—A “flexed” burial. (Not on scale.)

drawing the knees and chin well together with the legs drawn up almost parallel to the thighs. The arms occupy almost any position except an extended one. This form of burial doubtless recommended itself through economy of space, flexed skeleton calling for a grave not much over three feet in length. Fig. 2 shows a typical “flexed” burial.

In determination of sex there have been consulted the conformation of the forehead, the glabella, the superciliary ridges, the thickness of the outer upper

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Fig. 3.—Sherd with ornamentation of circular impressions. (Full size.)

margin of the orbit, the character of the facial bones, the muscular marking of the temporal region, size of mastoid process, size of external occipital protuberance and muscular markings in its vicinity, character of lower jaw, size of mental promi- nences, form of clavicle, size and muscular markings of the bones in general.

8 CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST.

Age, when stated, was based upon an examination of the teeth and sometimes of the epiphyses. When not otherwise stated in our descriptions, the skeleton is that of an adult.

All anatomical determinations have been made by Dr..M. G. Miller, who has been present during ali our field work in Georgia and in Florida.

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Fig. 4.—Sherd with button-like decoration. (Full size.) We shall see that burials of infants in some localities, of adults in others, were

in large jars made of clay tempered with gravel,’ almost invariably of the same type, consisting of a rounded base, an almost cylindrical body, a slightly constricted

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Fig. 5.—Shberd showing loss of decoration. (Full size.)

neck and a flaring rim, whose margin was exteriorly decorated with circular im- , contiguous or nearly so, doubtless of a section of a reed (Fig. 5), or with button-like ornaments some distance apart, made separately and impressed before baking (Fig. 4), and which sometimes are seen to have fallen from their places, as

pressions

''Termed gritty ware. This ware forms the majority of that found on the Georgia coast.

CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST. 9

shown in Fig. 5; or with an encircling band impressed at intervals (Fig. 6). The decoration of the body and neck of these vessels is usually a complicated stamped pattern so well known in Georgia and in Carolina. ; One of these burial jars (various forms were used for cremated remains) is shown in Plate IX. The late Col. C. C. Jones describes four similar vessels, all containing infant

Fig. 6.—Sherd showing band with impressions. (Full size.)

remains, as coming from mounds of the Georgia coast." We shall not again go into a detailed description of this form of vessel, but shall refer to it as the common, or ordinary type.

The reader will observe that considerable care has been taken in referring to, or in describing, vessels of shell or of earthenware, to note whether or not they were imperforate as to the base. This, it may be well to explain to some, has been done in reference to a custom obtaming to a considerable extent in Florida where vessels placed with the dead often had the bottom knocked out, the base perforated, or a hole made in the base at the time of manufacture, presumably to kill” the vessel to free its soul to accompany that of the dead person. This curious custom has been regarded as peculiar to Florida, but it is interesting to note a pos- sible observance of it to a limited extent in the mounds of the Georgia coast. It is well to note, however, that in cinerary urns, perforation of base is never met with.

Mounds Investigated.

Fairview, Camden County (2). Crescent, McIntosh County. Woodbine, Camden County. Walker Mound, McIntosh County. Owen's Ferry, Camden County. Contentment, McIntosh County. Brunswick, Glynn County (2). Broro Neck, McIntosh County (2).

Lawton’s Field, Darien, McIntosh Co. (5). Sapelo Island, McIntosh County (3). Townsend Mound, Darien, McIntosh Co. Bahama, McIntosh County (2).

Cat Head Creek, Darien, McIntosh Co. Laurel View, McIntosh County (2). “The Thicket,’ McIntosh County (6). St. Catherine’s Island, Liberty Co. (7). Shell Bluff, McIntosh County. Ossabaw Island, Bryan County (9). Creighton Island, McIntosh County (2). Skiddaway Island, Chatham County (3). Hopkins Mound, Belleville, McIntosh Co.

Antiquities of the Southern Indians,” p. 456.

10 CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST.

Low Mounp ar Farrvirw, CAMDEN CouUNTY.

Fairview, the property of Captain W. F. Bailey, to whom we are indebted for courteous permission to investigate, hes on the bank of Marianna Creek which empties into Kings Bay, Cumberland Sound.

The mound, in a cultivated field, had a diameter of base of 38 feet, a height of 2 feet 8 inches, though a large stump remaining on the mound gave evidence of a loss of about | foot additional height through the agency of the plow”

The mound was completely demolished.

The closest examination of the structure of this mound seemed to indicate that the usual pit, made previous to the erection of the mound, was wanting, and that the mound, composed of loamy brown sand and unstratified, had been erected upon the undisturbed level ground.

There were no marginal burials. In addition to fragmentary bones, thrown up by the plow, human remains were met with at seven points. °

One and one-half feet from the surface and 10 feet from the northwestern margin of the mound was the flexed skeleton of a child, in anatomical order.

An adult skeleton, showing the same form of burial, lay 2 feet from the surface.

One foot down was a deposit of fragments of calcined human bones beneath a local layer of oyster shells. With the remains lay a sheet copper ornament with repoussé decoration.

A burial, well in toward the center, had seemingly its full quota of bones, and the lower portion of the skeleton lay in anatomical order. The cranium, however, was upside down; the mandible lay on its side, embracing one bone of the forearm and two ribs. In all probability ligaments held together a part of this skeleton at the time of its removal to the mound. Reference has already been made to the custom formerly obtaining with many of the southern Indians, namely, the exposure of the body for a certain time previous to interment. Juan Ortiz, a member of a former expedition, rescued by De Soto, had been accorded by his captors the task of keeping carnivorous wild animals from remains thus exposed.

About 2.5 feet down, just above a thin layer of calcined oyster shells extending several feet beyond, were the bones of a young infant. With them were many shell beads of various sizes.

At another point lay a deposit of calcined bits of bone, some certainly human, all probably so.

Almost in the center of the mound were parts of a skeleton, considerably scattered. A small hole apparently had been dug previously at this point, causing a disarrangement of the bones.

Sherds were limited in number, about one dozen being met with, the majority plain though several bore a complicated stamped decoration.

With the exception of two or three bits of chert the mound yielded nothing farther of interest.

CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST. 11

Low Mounp NEAR FAIRVIEW, CAMDEN COUNTY.

In pine woods, about one-quarter of a mile in a northerly direction from the preceding mound, on property of Mr. Robert H. Frohock, to whom our acknowledge- ments for permission to dig, are herewith tendered, was a mound 2 feet 5 inches in height and 54 feet across the base.

The northern half was completely dug through. Considerable charcoal and fireplaces lay seemingly on the base.

Several bunched burials and fragments of human bones were met with at various points. Nothing in the way of art relics was encountered with the excep- tion of about one-half of a small and gracefully-shaped vessel of earthenware and several sherds, most of which bore an inctsed cross-hatched decoration.

Mounp NEAR WoopBINE, CAMDEN CouUNTY.

About three-quarters of a mile in a westerly direction from the town of Woodbine near the Satilla river, is Bedell’s Landing. About one-quarter of a mile south of the landing is a very symmetrical mound 4 feet 9 inches in height and 40 feet across the base. A number of large hickories are on the eastern side and these were left standing through a natural desire on the part of the owner of the large plantation on which the mound is situated to preserve the earthwork as a landmark. About two-thirds of the cubic contents of the mound were displaced and subsequently returned, leaving the mound in appearance as we found it.

Our thanks are tendered to Mr. J. K. Bedell, the owner, for full permission to investigate, a courtesy which, considering the proximity of the mound to his home- stead, might have reasonably been declined.

The mound was composed of lght-brownish sand with a shght admixture of clay. A vertical section of the mound from the summit plateau to where traces of human handiwork came to an end, had a height of 6 feet.

The usual fireplaces and admixture of charcoal with the sand were encountered. The mound had probably at an earlier period lost somewhat in height and had been considerably disturbed within recent years through use as a place for burial. | In fact, at the present time, but 35 yards distant, are numerous graves dating from the last half of the present century, and several intrusive burials, doubtless of this period, were discovered in the mound. One skeleton, the bones of which still had a raw appearance, had, near the pelvis, two brass buttons apparently belonging to an old fashioned “dress coat,” while another had iron nails, probably belonging to the coffin, in close proximity. The intrusive skeletons were buried at length and considerable care had been bestowed in the arrangement of the bodies, in one instance the hands being folded at the waist.

Original burials numbered about two dozen and were so badly decayed that in the case of some the method of interment was not determinable. When unmis- takably identified as to position the bones were found in anatomical order. The bodies had been variously flexed. These interments were found from 1.5 feet from

12 CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST.

the surface to a depth of 6 feet. In some cases local layers of sand dyed with the red oxide of iron lay immediately above the bones.

At two points in the mound were pockets made up of fragments of calcined human bones. In the mounds of Florida such pockets are sometimes found though cremation was not, so far as our experience extends, largely practised there. We shall see later to how considerable an extent this form of burial was in vogue among the aborigines of the Georgia coast.

EARTHENWARE.

Sherds were very infrequent and probably of accidental introduction, none lying with human remains. They were, as a rule, undecorated, though the comph- cated form of stamp, so well known in Georgia, was present.

No vessels of earthenware were encountered.

In a central portion of the mound, 5 feet from the surface, near human remains, was an undecorated tobacco pipe of earthenware, of a type common to the mounds of the lower thirty miles of the St. Johns river and other sections, where the aper- ture for the stem rivals that of the bowl in size. We have figured! a pipe of this type in our account of the mound at Point La Vista, Duval County, Florida.

STONE.

A graceful lance-point of chert lay with askeleton about 4 feet from the surface.

Two polished “celts” lay with burials | foot and 2.5 feet from the surface, respectively.

A small hammer-stone and a portion of a pebble were with the pipe to which reference has been made.

Loose in the sand was an arrowhead of chert.

SHELL.

Loose in the sand, throughout the mound, were several conchs (fw/yur) and fragments of conchs.

Upon a number of occasions shell beads lay with the burials.

A little over one foot below the surface, over the ribs of the skeleton of a child, was a gorget of shell, irregularly oval in form, 4.5 inches by 5.5 inches. Near the upper margin is a perforation for suspension. A companion to this perforation had apparently been destroyed by a blow from a spade, received at the time of discovery. The concave surface of this gorget shows traces of intricate incised decoration, the exact pattern of which is no longer apparent.

Less than one foot from the surface, with human remains, were two stopper- shaped objects of shell. This form (Fig. 7) so well known in certain sections, is not present in the mounds of the Georgia coast strictly speaking and has not been met with by us in shell in Florida though present in the great deposit of objects

' « Additional Mounds of Duval and of Clay Counties, Florida.”

CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST: 13

of earthenware found by us in the Thursby Mound, Volusia County.! These may have served as ear-plugs since we know it to have been an aboriginal custom to wear articles of considerable size thrust through the lobe of the ear.

About 3 feet from the surface, lying near the cranium of a skeleton, were beads of shell, some of considerable size; several stopper-shaped objects of shell; an imperforate drinking cup wrought from Fuleur perversum ; and an undecorated gorget of shell, 3.75 inches by 4.5 inches, with double perforation for suspension. Almost immediately above these remains and relics was an intrusive burial of recent times, having fragments of clothing and buttons.

Other stopper-shaped objects were found associated with a finger-ring of copper, to which reference will be made later.

About 3 feet from the surface was a nest of oyster shells and

charcoal.

Fig. 7.—Stopper- COPPER. shaped object of

shell. Mound : : : ~ 5 ° Sera SHAE Associated with human remains, 1.5 feet from the surface, was

Full size. 2 : ae pee an ornament of sheet copper almost oblong in shape. The margin

was beaded,” as is so commonly the case with similar ornaments in Florida, and a central coneavo-convex boss had its origin in a great number of semi-perforations placed closely together with the aid of some pointed implement. The sheet copper is decidedly thicker than that met with in Florida, more resembling sheet copper we have seen from Ohio. Not far from the center of the margin of the smaller end is a perforation for suspension. Length, 3 inches; maximum breadth, 2.75 inches ; minimum breadth, 2.25 inches. About 1.5 feet from the surface, 2 feet from a skeleton lying at the same level, was a circular ornament of sheet copper, 5 inches in diameter. The usual concavo-convex boss at the center is present, as likewise is the beaded margin. There is one perforation for attachment or suspension. In the northern ‘slope of the mound, about 2 feet from the surface, with a skeleton, were shell beads, several stopper-shaped objects of shell and, in place on a finger bone, a finger-ring wrought. ™8,°>, cisenuins from a band of thin sheet copper (Fig. 8). anes pee Oe Prehistoric finger-rings are of extreme rarity in this country. In the cemetery at Madisonville, Ohio, where are the famous ash-pits, Professor Putnam found on the fingers of one skeleton four rings made from bands of sheet copper, and speaks of such rings as unique in American archeeology.”’? Professor Putnam does not recall the discovery of similar rings from the date of publication of his report to the present time. 1 “Certain Sand Mounds of the St. Johns River, Florida,” Part I, Fig. 100.

» The same beaded margin, so frequently seen on ornaments of sheet copper in Florida, is repre-

sented as present on a sheet silver disc from Peru. Necropolis of Ancon,” Reiss and Sttibell, Berlin.

Part VIII, Plate LX XX], Fig. 19. * XVI and XVII Annual Reports, Peabody Museum, p. 166.

2 JOURN. A. N. S. PHILA., VOL. XI.

14 CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST.

It is worthy of remark that similarly shaped finger-rings of metal bands have been found on Peruvian mummies, two such rings being figured’ in Reiss and Stabel’s magnificent plates. Unfortunately, the metal from which the rings are made is not specified, but as they are shown of a deep green shade presumably copper is represented. On ornaments of silver containing copper one is not likely to find so marked and so uniform a deposit of carbonate.

MISCELLANEOUS.

The tooth of a fossil shark, about 4 inches in length, apparently unassociated, lay 5 feet from the surface.

Another shark’s tooth, 1 inch in length, lay in caved sand. At its base was ¢ perforation possibly for suspension as an ornament, or just as probably for attach- ment to a wooden handle for use as a cutting tool, such implements having been found by Mr. Cushing in the mud near shell-heaps of the southwestern coast of Florida.

On or just beneath the surface, at a considerable distance from any burial, was a polychrome glass bead which we believe to have been dropped upon the mound subsequent to its completion.

REMARKS.

The interesting mound near Woodbine, which we have included here, has nothing in common with the mounds of the coast, being on fresh water and at a considerable distance from the sea. This fact should be borne in mind when the contents of the mound are taken into consideration.

Mounp AT OweEn’s FERRY, CAMDEN CouNTY.

At Owen's Ferry, on the left hand side of the Satilla river, going down, in full view from the water, on the property of George 8. Owen, Esq., of Savannah, is a symmetrical mound apparently uninvestigated previous to our visit. It is pictur- esquely situated on a bluff sloping to the water's edge and on it grow a number of forest trees. The mound, considered a landmark, is in full view of the Owen house and we deem it an especial courtesy on the part of Mr. Owen to have placed it so readily at our disposition.

In shape the mound resembles an imverted bowl. Its height from the east, which may be considered a fair average, is 6 feet 4 inches; its diameter at base, 52 feet. Over one-half of the mouud, the northernmost portion, was dug away and subsequently replaced. The mound was composed of light yellow sand without stratification.

Small fragments of human bone in the last stage of decay, were present at three points.

* “The Necropolis of Ancon,” Berlin. Part III, Plate XXX, Fig. 14.

CHRTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST. 15

A few sherds, some plain and some ornamented with the usual diamond or “square stamp, lay loose in the sand, as did three arrow-heads of chert, found separately. Well in toward the center was an irregular mass of oyster shells. about 6 feet from the surface.

The result of our examination of this mound surprised us greatly, since it strongly resembled the rich little mound at Woodbine a few miles below.

Two Mounps SovutH or Brunswick, GLYNN CouNTY.

At South Brunswick, opposite the town of Brunswick, about 200 yards in a southerly direction from the railroad wharf, was a mound 2 feet high and 26 feet across the base. It bore no marks of previous investigation. A total demolition of the mound was without result.

About 1.5 miles inland from Fancy Bluff, an abandoned plantation on a creek a short distance from South Brunswick, was a mound 2 feet 3 inches in height, and 28 feet across the base. This mound was investigated so far as a large tree upon its northern portion permitted. No discoveries of any sort were made.

Mounps 1n LaAawrton’s Fretp, Darien, McIntosu County.

The town of Darien, on a branch of the Altamaha river, is about 10 miles distant from the sea in a straight line. ;

In the northern outskirt of the town is a large field, the property of Mr. P. C. Lawton, an intelligent colored man, who readily placed at our disposal three mounds included within the limits of his field.

Mound A. This mound, which had been plowed over for years, had, according to report, lost considerably in height which, at the time of its total demolition by us, was 4 feet 6 inches. Its diameter at base was 46 feet.

Previous investigation was limited to a narrow superficial trench through a portion of the mound.

The mound was composed of yellowish sand with local layers of oyster shells, calcined in one instance, and of sand, brownish in color, probably through presence of foreign material. A layer of brownish sand, about | foot in thickness, seemed to mark the lower portion of the mound, as immediately below it was bright yellow sand, undisturbed, and containing no object of artificial origm. At the center, from this bright yellow sand to the highest portion of the mound, vertically, was 6 feet.

A number of fragmentary and disconnected human bones were found in the neighborhood of the trench, left by previous investigators. Undisturbed human remains, which were almost entirely confined to the eastern side of the mound, were eleven in number. The form of burial was that in anatomical order. The skeletons were considerably flexed. Nearly, if not, all had been, to all appearance, wrapped in bark much of which, though badly decayed, still remained.

16 CERTAIN ABORIGINAL MOUNDS OF THE GEORGIA COAST.

Sherds were comparatively of infrequent occurrence and were apparently of accidental introduction. The plain, the checked stamp, and the intricate stamp were represented.

The mound was unusually devoid of artifacts. Large shell beads were present with several skeletons, and some small ones with the skeleton of an infant.

With human remains, just beneath the present surface, were two stone hatchets, one very rude; one pebble and one bit of earthenware.

Loose in the sand were a bit of fossil wood, and, in another portion of the mound, a small mass of sandstone, pitted on one side. Unassociated, 5.5 feet from the surface was a very rude implement of stone.

Mound B. This mound, about 50 feet south of the preceding one, had a height of 4 feet, a diameter at base of 36 feet. A narrow trench, about 2 feet in depth, had previously been dug through a portion of it.

The mound was completely demolished.

Its composition was almost identical with that of Mound A.

HUMAN REMAINS.

Exclusive of certain loose bones, disturbed by previous investigators, 32 burials were noted in the mound. Of these, 50 were in anatomical order and flexed, while two consisted of deposits of charred and calcined fragments of human bones. Above certain skeletons lay small local layers of oyster