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FOR INSTRUCTION IN THE

AET AlB SCIMCE «^ 6AEME3ST CHTTIIG,

FOR ALL THE

viiii^iis i^oMMSoFTii vmm MQi

H i\( W)

BY

A^XJG^XJSTXJS KOCH.

iLLUSirr^ATED BY

'r W E L V E

PLATES OF FINELY ENGRAYED DIAGRAMS AND FIGURES,

WITH FULL INSTRi:CTIONS FOR DRAFTING THE VARIOUS STYLES OF COATS,

AND VESTS.

POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 18 8 3.

n^

V -

Ill «f

r] a li

A

FOR INSTRUCTION IN THE

AET MB SCIEIGE «p fiAllillT CIITTII6,

FOR ALL

Tl]e Yarious Forms of tl]e ^umai] Body.

BY

^TJGMJSTXJS KOCH,

ILLUSTI^AIIIED BY

FIFTEEN

PLATES OF FINELY ENGRAYED DIAGRAMS AND FIGURES,

WITH FULL INSTRUCTIONS FOR DRAFTING THE VARIOUS STYLES OF COATS,

VESTS AND PANTS.

POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y

18 8 3.

Entered according to Act of Congress in the yeaF 1883, by

alTtUstus Kocn,

In tlie office of the Librarian of Congress at Wasiiington, D. C.

' ']^W rii ^)Mt»,

Tins IMPOVED voLUMF,, wliicli is introduced by these few lines, is in reality tlie Second Edition of tlje Author" s celebrated System pulished in 1876, then entitled " The Cutters'' Centennial Guide," which is so extensively and successfully used in almost every State of the Union.

This Volume, therefore, is intended to unfold the NEW DiscovEKiES and improvements since then made, in as finely illustrated fashion as the subject will permit or the Author can present it.

That a new departure and radical changes are disseminated in the professional Art of Cutting, need not be argued at this time, for the present work will bear the scrutinizing eye of the candid artist, who will find unfolded to his untiring vision the most scientific Peoblem ever devel- oped by any author of systems of Garment Cut- ting.

In this Volume will be found the grand com- bination of the two great principles upon which true Garment Cutting is founded, which are Simplification and Accuracy ; and the ground PLAN underlying these principles comprises Ac- tual Measurement and Direct Application of the measures to the Draft as taken from the Body.

The wonderful invention by the Author of the

ONE GRAND NEW MEASURE Called " SllOUldcr

Regulator," and its direct application to the draft as taken from the Body — in connection with tJiree other measures (Front, Back and Waist

Balance,) which are all taken from one iwint, — never fail, if correctly taken, to produce a well-fitting garment, and accomplish the good result for all the various forms of the human body.

The Work is original in all the general details introduced, both in the Description given, and in the accomiianying fifteen Plates of Illustration.

The two Figures show the different points and application of the tape-measure ; the Dia- grams the drafting ; and the Description ex- plains the whole in a clear and thorough man- ner, so that any Cutter of ordinary talent can use the System at once, and with full success.

And, furthermore, the young man who does not understand Cutting at all, can learn it easily from the instruction given in the book, without a personal instructor or teacher.

The Author claims that he has brought out and developed, in condensed form, a true and re- liable WORK ON Garment Cutting, — as only STUDY' and experience can offer and produce.

In conclusion, the Author advises all those who intend to study and jjractice these new principles to lay aside all prejudice and follow out the instruction as herein given ; and if you thus do, COMPLETE SUCCESS will foUow, and you will become a hearty indorser of this valuable Work.

G^ivifJTrioN.

To all nhoin it may concern : Notice is hereby given to all persons in whose hands a copy of this work may be placed, that the publisher is the sole proprietor and vender, according to the laws of the United States of America ; and any person or persons who attempt to publish, or have it published, in whole or in part, or teach others from the illustrations and instructions herein contained, will hold themselves liable to heavy penalties. And, further, it is understood that this work is not transferable to a third party without a written consent from the publisher, which consent will be attached to the work so transferred ; [and for any violation thereof, proceed^ ings will be commenced at once against all such offenders.

THE GUTTER AND GUIDE.

F^Fi^aa^ia^i!^ HiKa^s

IX KEGAED TO

Measurement and Position of the Customer.

]T[HE Measurement of Gakmejs'ts is a subject -A- wliicli brings before us an extensive sphere of imi^ortant matters on which a large volume might be written ; but it is not my intention to do so. The only desii-e that I have is, to impress the important subject, which is so worthy of study and consideration, on the mind of the Cut- ter who may use this System. I do not mean by this (or even attempt to do so,) to instruct the skilful Artist who has had many years of practi- cal experience in tlie profession of Cutting, — he knows all this. It is, therefore, not this class of men which I try to instruct, but it is the young, inexperienced Cutter for whom the subject is in- tended.

We find many things in regard to measure- taking, which the Cutter may look upon as very triiling matters, — but nothing in relation to mea- surement is so trifling and insignificant as not to need full explanation.

We will now begin, and show some of these trifling things, but which are sufficient to produce misfits and alterations whereby hundreds of dol- lars may be lost every year.

The first one which we will mention is, talk- ing to the customer while tou are taking

HIS measures.

Let it be understood between you and your em- ployer, or whosoever takes down the measures, not to talk to the customer (if it can be avoided) while you are taking his measures. Nothing is more annoying to the Cutter and injurious to his work than this trifling matter. Now, should you want my reason for this, I will simply state : — when talking is going on, the customer will twist and move about, and consequently will get out of his natural position.

The second hint is : that every Cutter, no mat- ter what system he may have, or use, should have his regular fixed points on the body, from which the tape measure has to be applied ; and so long as these points are correct once, and hold good in all cases and forms of the body, and the measures from those points will produce the cor- rect draft, he should stick close to them, and not jump from one experiment to anotlier. We find many Cutters who are like grasshoppers, jump- ing from one point to another — experimenting in a different measurement for every coat — and are never successful in cutting.

The third practical hint is : We should take all the principal measures which are necessary to produce a correct draft for the form of body — but beyond this, all the proof or check mea- sures should be avoided. Those measures will do more harm than good to the Cutter.

Fourth : All the necessary measures should l)e taken without instrument, and with tape only.

It is a well known fact, that there are systems of garment cutting wherein an almost endless a- mount of measures have to be taken, and to pro- duce them the Cutter must use a measuring square or MEASURING MACHINE in wMch the cus- tomer is placed, like a horse in harness. Now, this is not alone the most disagreeable thing for customer and Cutter, but it is also the loorst thing ever invented, because more blunders are made with this class of instruments tlian we can imagine.

The fifth practical hint is: That all these measures which may be necessary for any one system should be taken correctly and with utmost care, so that they will give the actual amount which the body calls for ; and in not doing so, we find the cause why some cutters will get in trouble more or less, and then discard their Sys- tem and fly to a new one. Now this is a great mistake : — failure and trouble must occur Avitli the best System, if a careless measurement is taken.

It stands to reason that, should we make an error in the measurement, it is certain that the same error will be made in the draft. And, again, if we can expect a good fitting garment at all, it necessarily is because we have the correct mea- sure by which the good fitting garment is pro- duced. This is appliable to any one System which the Cutter may use.

Sixth. To accomplish the good result, and to secure a correct measurement, — The only safe and sure plan is, that all the measures should be taken over the Vest. No doubt some Cutters will say, ' this is a very difficult matter to do.' Now every Cutter of experience must confess, that when the measures have to be taken over a bad-fitting Coat, it is the most difficult work that a cutter can un- dertake. If this is true, why, then, should the measures taken over the Vest be more difficult than otherwise? It is certainly as easy, if not more so, as any other plan in existence.

THE CUTTER AX I) GUIDE.

The measurement over the Vest has certain ad- vantages. Take, for instance, the Coat whicli is more or less wadded, yes, some, we must say, are stuffed out with wadding,— now, then, is it possi- ble for any one to ascertain the real amount which the Body actually calls for '. while, on the other hand, by taking the measures over the Vest, nothing will interfere, and we will have just so much — no more, no less.

Again : Supposing the customer is one-sided, one shoulder lower than the other— it will not be noticed when the coat is on, because the shoulder is raised up with wadding so that it will appear level with the other. Now, if the customer does not caution the Cutter, he will discover the error when the garment is finished, and by the altera- tions which must follow ; while, by taking the measures over the Vest, we liave the whole form before us, and nothing will hide its defects from notice. These few remarks we deem sufficient to show the advantages of measuring without Squake and Coat.

But there is another very important point that we must impress upon the mind of every Cutter, which is of like importance as the measurement itself, if not more so,— and this is: Before we can expect a correct measurement at all, it is ab- solutely necessary tliat the customer must stand in his

NATURAL POSITION.

\V(" can say from experience, tliat in a majority of cases, where customers come to the Cutter to have their measures taken, we will find "very few stooping or disj^roportioned men ; even the most stooping forms will stand straight, or nearly so. Now, should we establish our points and apply the tape measure to the form in such an unnatu- ral position, it is impossible that the garment would fit when they stand in their natural shape. The question may arise, how do we know if the customer is in his natural position? andif so, hoAv can we avoid it ? My ansAver to this question is, Take a "quiet survey" of yoiir customer as he enters your cutting room, and as he is looking at the fashion plate, or in any other way opportu- nity may offer ; and by doing so, you can judge very nearly of the figure you may have to clothe. Now, should he present himself to you in any other form when you are ready to establisli the points and take the measure, then talk to him and attract his attention to some other things, and you will soon find that he has come to terms — will show, perhaps, his round shoulders, and stand in his usual jiosition.

Supposing, now, that this be the case, we then goon and mark our Points, as illustrated by Fio- ti:e 1 and Figi'ke 2.

D

LATE

Illustration of Points and Measurement, Figure 1 and Figure 2.

p^x THIS System we have only one point that m requires the plumb line, and this point we find by Eye measure. But as we desire that the location of this point sliaJl be fully understood by all who may use this Systinii, we will explain it with a ruler to the new Ijeginiu'r :

Bring the Vest smoothly down to the body at the waist, and fasten it to the pants with a pin so it will stay in its place. Now take a short ruler, place it against the right front arm, let it r\in down in a plumb line, and di-aw a chalk maik at I), or waist, on the same side of ruler that rests on arm. Having this line, then draw a chalk mark crossways above the hip-boiic, in tlic most hollow i)art of the body, so that tiiese two marks will show thus -f , and we have point I), Fig- ure 2.

Now make a maik Ifugthways iti centre of back, at neck, as at A, Fig. t. Then make a mark cro.ssways, at a point where the toj) of back

shall join the collar, (say one inch below the top or crease of collar,) so that these marks will show thus +, and we have point A, Figure 1.

Tiien make a clialk mark lengthways in centre of back, as at K, thence crossing at a i:)oint about one-third of top and bottom of arm, from bottom of arm up, and we have the point K, Fig. 1. It is a good plan, when the waist length is taken from A to B, to note the exact amount from A to K.

Next, make a mark in centre of back at waist, and we have point E, Figure ].

Tliese four P( ints which we have now estab- lished will produce the Balance of the Coat, and thei'efore the Cuttei- should locate them with the greatest care.

Having located those I'oints, we then go on to show

THE MEASl REPEAT. Bring the tape on + A, Fig. 1: measure to K, (say

THE CUTTER AND GUIDE.

6i inches); let it nm down to B, for full length of waist, (say 18f inches), thence to C, full length of coat (say 38 inches). These three measures may be taken before your customer has laid off his coat ; and those not experienced in measuring over the vest may adopt that plan at the begin- ning, and thus make a gradual change if they deem it advisable to do so.

Now place the tape measure on -|-, A,'_.Fig. 1, and measure from that jjoint, as follows :

From A, down in back in a direct line to -|- I), Fig. 2, as line P, Fig. 1 indicates, (say \^\ inches), and we have the Back Balance measure. Bring the tape over the front shoulder, and measure from A, down in front of arm to -|-l),Fig.2,(say 20^ inches), and we have the Front Balance. Extend the tape measure to I, or hand, for full length of sleeve, (say 31i inches).

Note : The measure for sleeve length may be taken in another form, as follows : Raise the arm in horizontal line with the body, have the elbow slightly bent. Then measure from centre of back to elbow, (say 20 inches), then to the hand, full length of sleeve, (say 32^ inches). We leave this for the Cutter to decide which measure he will adopt.

Having the tape measure yet in fiont of arm as before stated, then measure from A, down in front of the arm, bring the tape around under the arm in a close-litting manner, (close, but not tight), then up to the starting jioint A, as indicated by line Gr, Figures 1 and 2, (say 264^ irrches"), and we have the Arm-depth measure.

Now, let the tape measure rest in that position in front and under the arm, and bring the tape down on back to point K, as shown by Figure 1, (say 23i inches), and we have the Slioulder mea- sure.

The Cutter will see l)y this, tliat all the above measures are taken from Point A, top of back, where the end of the tape is held with the left hand, and with the right hand we apply the tape to the different points.

Now luring tlie tape measure down on + I),

Fig, 2, and measure to E, centre of back, as shown on Fig. 1, (say7i inches), and we have the Back Waist measure. Let the tape measure rest on -\- T), Fig. 2, bi'ing the tape up in back of arm to top of shoulder, as shown by line H, Fig. 1 and 2, and then across the acromian process, or, in other words, one inch from the extreme end of shoulder point, in a smootli-fitting man- ner, then down in front of arm to the starting point -|- D, (say 31 inches), and we have the grand ritio measure called

THE SHOriiDER RECil LATOR.

Notj: : Before taking this measure, see that your customer's shoulder is down in natural po- sition, not raised or drawn back. Again, draw your measure close, but not tight, and shoiild correspond in closeness to Front and Back Bal- ance.

Next apply the tape for Breast Measure, as shown by L, Figures 1 and 2. Bring the tape measure close up under the arms, then across the shoulder blades, and back again to the starting point, (say 36 inches). This measure should be taken quite snug, so that we may have the actual size of Breast.

The next and last measure we now take is the Waist Measure, as shown by line M, Fig. 2. Bring the tape around the waist where the body is the smallest, and note the amount, (say 32 inches).

This completes the measurement, summed up as follows :

6^ inches Point of shoulder measure.

18f "■ Full length of waist measure.

38 " Full length of coat.

19|- ■ " Back balance measure.

20| " Front balance

31^ '" Sleeve length

26i " Arm depth

23i '• Shoulder 7i •' Back waist "

31 " Shoulder Regulator measure. 36 " Breast measure.

32 " Waist '•

THE CUTTER AND GUIDE.

THE COAT SYSTEM.

Plate

1

Diagram A. HOWING THE SrAFT OF A ©OUBLE-IrEASTED Jf ROCK loAT.

Draw a line in centre ol' l)ack as from O to (). Square out at riglit anule from A to Y. ]k)lli of these lines are tlie oonstruction lines from which we ajtply tlie ineasure to complete the draft.

The next point which we must now establish is line B, or front of arm scye, and this we do by the slionlder oneafnire, which calls for 23i inches in the measurement.

Take this measure, divide it in two equal parts, and apply one-lialf, (llf inches), from A to B, and the correct point for the fi'ont of arm scye is established. (This point will lie more fully ex- plained below.) JSTow, square u]) from B to D, — which we will call line B.

Next in order is the Front Balance measure, wdiich calls for 20^ inches. Take the amount and apply it from B to D. Square out to K, and the front length of the coat is established.

Then apply the f3ack AVaist measui'e, 7^ inches, from A to E, and make a mark.

Having- this, then draw a short line from B to F, which is in the direction to top of back. Now locate point F. Measure the distance from E to B, (4^ inches), divide this in six equal jiarts, and apply one part ({^ inches) from B toF. This one- sixth may be readily found as follows : if you have a division square, then measure the distance from E to B, with the division of 4ths, and what- ever the number may be in this (No. 17 in this case), take the same number in the division of 24tlis, and yciu \\ill ]ia\e the one-sixtli from B to F.

Next in order is the Back i'alancc mcnsiirc Take this measure IDi inches, add one seam, and apply the amount fidiii F to II, and we Imve the correct length of back. Sipiare out fiom II to T. Having this, then locate ])oiiit K. Take the amount from A to 13, divide it in four ])arfs, and api)ly one-fourth, {21 inciies), fiom T) to K, and make a mark.

Now proceed to locate line L. or bottom of arm scye. Take the aiiu ch^pth measure "JC)] inches, and ajiply one jialf of this measure [\'.\\ inches)

from K to 8, and make a sweep line with yovir left thundj-nail. Then apply the same amount (13^ inches) from H to 3, and make a sweep line also, as shown in Diagram. Now place the s(piare on 0 0 line ; let long arm of square rest on cros^;ing of sweep lines at 3, and in that posi- tion draw a line from L, through sweep to V, in front, and we have the bottcmi of arm scye.

Having this, then we establish point J, and by this we find line C.

Take one-third of A and B, (3J inches), and bring this from line B to J. Having this point, then api)ly f inch in all cases and sizes from J to C, and square line G up to &

Now take one-half of B and C, (2^ inches), add one seam, and bring the amount from H to I — also from D to G. Square out from G to U.

Next in order is line P, or point of back sleeve seam — place the ruler on crossing of B and L lines, let it rest on H, top of back, aard make a mark on line C, as at N. NcJw place the square on centre of back, and square out from P through N to M.

Then mark width of back as at 1 and 2, (say | inch on each side of line P,) or any width ac- cording to fancjr or fashion, and draw line 1 and 2— mark out from 2, for pitch of back, say f inch more or less, according to the fashion of the day.

Next a[)])ly the measure for length of waist from H to W, 18f inches. Square out from W to X. Mark up from I, f inch for spring of back.

Having all these points, we are now prepared to tinish tile Back. Shape the centre line of back fiom L to AV. Mark width of back as from A to 4. Tlien comnience and shape the back: draw a line from II to maik above I, from I to 2, from 2 to ], and from i down through 4 to bottom, ac- coi'ding to fancy or fashion, and as shown in Di- agram A.

Now locate })oint Q. I)ivi(h' tlie distance from L to P in four (>qual parts, antl bring one part from line L up to Q, which gives us the point for front of slee\-e seam. Next place the tape on point of side body as at 1, and make a sweep line

PLATE II

--1^ -

See Dia0r G Plate Vll

3

1

PLATE, III.

^^\

THE CUTTER AND GUIDE.

9

from bottom of inside seam of Ixick out to G, which line will give the length of side body. Place the rnler on i3oiut K and M, and draw a a line. Now locate point R. Measure the dis- tance from line B to C, (4f inches), divide this in three equal parts, and apply one-third, (If inch- es), from B to R, and we have the correct j)oint from which we apply the grand new measure called

" The Shoulder Re!;ulator."

This we hud calls for 31 inclies in the measure- ment. Now take the tape, place it on R, let it run ui) in a direct line to top of back shoulder seam at line C, (say 14^ inches,) bring the amount, whatever it may be, on R, and apply full length of measure, 31 inches, in a direct line up to S, and make a sweep line out from this point, as shown in Diagram, and we have the cor- rect point by which we draw our line for front shoulder seam.

Now I must draw your attention to the i-emark which I have made when points 1 and 2 were loca-

ted, as follows: "Mark width of back (say f inch) on each side of line P, or any width accord- ing to fancy or fashion. ' ' No doubt to the practi- cal Cutter this point is now clear why we have given the liberty of drawing the back shoulder seam higher, or lower, than f inch. Supposing we would mark line 2, one inch further up than in Diagram and as above stated, then dra*' our back shoulder seam by this line : Now apply your Shoulder Regulator measure from R, to top of shoulder at line C, and we have just the same amount more which we have marked up for line 2. Now place the amount on R, mark off 31 inches, up to S, and we find this point is just the same amount lower down ; and so vice versa. Therefore we say to the Cutter, suit yourself in regard to the shoulder drop of back, and have this point according to your taste or fancy, and the Slioulder Regulator measure will establish point S, accordingly.

Having made this statement, we are I'eady to cut out the Back, and by doing so proceed and take lip —

Plate

Diagram B.

In which we find the necessary instruction to finish the Draft.

First, proceed and hnisli the front Shoulder. Take the back, bring it on top of front shoulder, let H rest on K and fasten the back at this point with a pin. Having done so, then shove the back in so that top of back will rest on K M line, and point 2, pitch of back, will be f inch above sweep line S ; and in that position draw a line liy back shoulder seam from K M line U) * centre of shoulder. Now place the pin at ■• and shove the back down so it will rest on sweep line S. Draw a line from * to pitch of back. Having this, let tlie l)ack remain in that position and shape the upi)er arm scye by back pitch down to Q to 3. Now take the back off and shape the shoulder of front part, from arm scye to * and from that point out to K M line, as shown in Diagram A.

Next proceed and linish the side body and waist. Bring the back to point of side body, let line 1, front and liack meet, and fasten the back at this point with a pin. Having done so, then the next thing must be to find the correct round- ing of side body from 1 to line L, which will lie in harmony with the form of body for which the draft is made. Now to accomplish this to our en- tire satisfaction, we must apply the shoulder measure, which is the only true guide in this im-

portant matter. Make a mark in centre of back 6 J inches below H, for point of shoulder measure. (See measurement. )

Then take the Shoulder measure, which calls for 23J inches, add f inch for seams in all cases, and apply the full amount, (24^ inches in this draft), as follows : — From K to Q, then around the front arm scye, in a smooth-fitting manner, to 3, and from 3 in a direct line to centre seam of back and mai'k made by 6^ inches ; shove the back in at bottom until this measure will rest on or meet this i^oint ; and when so, then draw a line from 1 to line L, alongside of the back, and we have the correct rounding for the form of the body. Now let the back remain in that position, and shape the arm scye from 1 to 3, as shown in Dia- gram.

Having this, then place the pin close to the edge of inside line of back at L, and shove the back in below. Now take the Back Waist mea- sui'e, add 1\ inch in all cases to the measure, and bring the amount (8| inches in this case) from B to A, or centre of back, as shown in Diagram ; and in that position, draw a line from L to bottom of back, as shown by dotted line. Having this, then finish the side body by these lines : give a little more i-ounding at top, from 1 to L, and be- low L, hollow the side body a trifle to A line,

10

THE CUTTER AND GUIDE.

and from there pive tlie neeessary sijring to 0, wliateA^er the foi'in may need, as sliovvn in Dia- grams B and A.

Next, finisli the Waist j^art. Draw a line for width of side body, according to fancy or fashion, as from line L, to 7, tf) 9. Now we liave given 1\ inch more than back waisl measiire from B to A, — I inch of which is necessary for seams; the other half inch we takeout between side body and front part, as from 7 to S. Having this, then draw a corresponding line from L, througli 8, to bottom. Next establish the bottom line of side body. Bring the angle of s(|nare on 0, Diag. A ; let long arm of square rest on H, top of back, and draw a line from 0 to 9, and by this shape the bottom line of side body.

The next thing must be to apply the Breast measure. Close the back to side body, as in Dia- gram B. Measure out from L to T, one-half breast measure,18 inches— from T to V, 2* inches in all sizes. Square up from T to U. From U, draw a line to V. From U to Z, mark ^ inch more tlian one-sixth of breast, 3^ inches— from G to Z 2, (Diagram A), one-half the amount, If inches— and draw a line l)y these points, for depth of neck. Now place the back on toj) of shoulder point, as in Diagram B, and hnish the neck gorge as in Diagram.

Next to this we apply the AVaist Meas- ure. You will remember that we have applied the back waist measure from B to A. Now bring the amount 7^ inches on line B, mark out to front, one-lialf waist, 10 inches, and allow one- half incli, or even one inch more for making uj), and we have point Y. Note :— The allowance at this i^oint depends entirely on the material, and also on the ease which the customer wishes.

Now commence and finish the front. Draw a line from neck point to V, from V through Y to bottom. Then draw the bottom line; ccmimence one seam below the side body at 9, and stiike X in front, and as shown in Dia^■ram.

Next finish the lapel. Draw a line from X to top — extend A and L line out. Mark width at toja (say 2\ inches), or fashion — at line L, (say 2f inches) at A line, (say 2i inches) — at bottom, (say 2 inches), finish the top according to the fashion of the day. Now proceed and draw the front line from top to bottom, and finish all the rest, as shown in Diagram A and B, and the draft for a double breasted coat is finished.

But here I will say, In case the Cutter should be in doubt that he may not have applied the Shonlder Measure for the rounding of side body as it ought to be, and according to the explana- tion herein given, then he may i^rove its correct- ness by the Back Balance measure, as follows : Mark up from B, to * at F, (Diagram B), the same amount as w-e have taken out from 7 to 8, or i inch ; and from tliis apply the Back Balance, 19^ inches, uj) to H, and make a sweep line, as shown in Diagram B. Now, if the top of back will rest on this sweep line when brought in a joining i)Osition with side body, as in Diagram, then the application of the Shoulder Measure is correct.

Now, as we have finished the draft, and are ready to cut the pattern out, let lis take the fol- loAving measures from the draft wdiile it is whole, and therefore it is more convenient to do so.

First: Close the back and front shoulder at line S, as in Diagram B. Now, measure from N, or P line, around the upper arm scye to Q in front, in a close-fitting manner, and we will find 9 inches in this draft. Note the amount down.

Next : ]\Ieasure from Q around the lower arm scye up to N, in back, (say 7f inches). Note the amount down.

Then bring the tape on K, and measure to Q, (say llf inches). Note tliis down also.

These three measures we will need when the draft of Sleeve is made, which we find in Plate YI, Diagrams E and F.

Having these three measures, then cut the pat- tern out.

HE

I JrAFT of a flNGLE §REASTED foAT.

state to (lie Nouiiu', inox- foi.t.owkd nv tiik. r

I (li'cni it neccssaiy to state to (lie young, mex- | followjod by the cutteh.

pei'ienced Cuttei-, that the Single P.reasted Coat [ Vuv a coat which shall roll down to the 2d but-

is drafted in the same niannei' as the Double j ton at waist, and which is intended to button xip

Breast<'il. willioul any cliaug.' wliati'vcr, except below,— We mark out from V (say 1^ inches) and

whi'iv a certain aiuouul has to be at Y (say 1 inch) more or les.s, according to the

the front, whi'iv a certain brought out from A' and Y.

Now, in regard to the amouiil which is needed, no fixed quantity can be given, ami must be made according to the style oC fi-ont. We will there- fore give a guide onlv, which mav lie

ease want(>d by the ciistomer.

.\ coat with a short roll, and intended to but- ton \\\) vfiy high, — One inch is sufficient from V out ; and lielow this point the style and fashion will i-eiiuhite it.

THE CUTTER AND GUIDE.

11

Mesiiarksi on the above Draff.

The Draft of Diagrams A and B is now finisli- '^d and thorouglily exj^Iained. Therefore, I deem it my dnty to state, that by this single draft the Cutter has (with only one exception, my whole System of the Coat Body. No mat- ter what shape or form he may have to deal with, or for which he may be called upon to pro-

vide a covering, the principal part of drafting is for all alike.

This one exception is, as we have alluded to in the commencement of the draft, by applying one-half of shoulder measure from A to B, or front of arm scye line, and will be fully explain- ed on this page, bearing title "The Shoulder Measure in connection with Front and Back Bal- ance."

©HE SHOULDEI^ fflEASUI^E,

IN CONEECTION WITH FRONT AND BACK BALANCE.

This is a simple but highly important point, and all those who intend to study and practice this New System should follow tlie instruction as herein given :

Tire Cutter will see at once that the Front and BacTc Balances measures will bring the length of coat, in front and back ; and, according to the length of the Back Balance, the sweep lines at 3 will change more to the front or to the back. (See Diagrams A, C and D.)

And just in the same manner the Shoulder measure must change also, otherwise it will not be in harmony with Front and Back Balance measures.

Now this we do in a very easy and simple way, Avithout any comxDlication whatever.

In the regular x>i'oportioned size of coat, (no matter what the size of breast may be), the back balance is always one inch less than the front balance. (See measurement. Diagram A). But as long as the back balance does not run below this one inch, and also not above the front bal- ance, we call it a proportioned size, and apjjly one-half of the shoulder measure from A to B, for front of arm scye line, as shown in Diagram A.

But as soon as the back balance is more than the front balance (as the case will be in stooping- forms,) then whatever the amount may be which the back balance is more than front, we add the amount to one-half of shoulder measure, and apply it from A to B, for front of arm scj^e line.

This is fully illustrated in Diagram C.

Then we take the reverse side, where the back balance runs more than one inch below the front balance (as the case will be in erect forms). In all such cases we deduct the amount which is less than one inch, from the one-half shoulder measure, and whatever is left of the one-half

shoulder we apply from A to B, and draw the front of arm scye line by this point.

To show this more plainly, we suppose the front balance will call for 20|- inches — the back balance 19 inches. Here we have ^ inch which we must deduct from the shoulder measure. Supposing now the shoulder measure calls for 23 inches, one-half of which would be 11^ inches. Now deduct the ^ inch from this, and we have 11 inches, which we apply from A to B.

This is also illustrated in Diagram D, (see measurement)— front balance 23| inches — back balance 22 inches. Here we have | inch which we must deduct from the shoulder measure. Now take one-half shoulder measure, 14^ inches ; de- duct f inch from this and we have 13|- inches, which we apply fro7n A to B, as sliown in the draft of Diagram D.

This includes all cases, no matter what the dif- ference may be between front and back balance, and which may exist in one way or the other, and by doing so, the front of arm scye line will be established according to the form of the body which we have measured and di-afted for; and the shoulder measure will be brought in liarniony with front and back balance.

Now, should any Cutter wish to know the rea- son for so doing, I will state it to him. In the first case above mentioned, (stooping), the dis- tance from D to bottom of arm scye is less than the proportioned size, and consequently the dif- ference of shoulder measure is made up from L to B, or front of arm scye.

In the second case, (erect), the distance from D to bottom of arm scye is more than the projpor- tioned size, and L to B must be Jiist so much less.

This point B, or front of arm scye line, is of great importance in coat cutting, and therefore we show its effect more fiillv in the next article.

12

THE CUTTER AND GUIDE.

AND THE EFFECT WHICH I« HAS IF NOT PROPERLY LOCATED.

The proi)er and definite location of B line, or front of arm scye, is one of the most important points in coat cntting, and therefoiv well wortliy of study and consideration.

AVe can say with safety, and witliont hesita- tion, that in nine cases ont of ten which the Cnt- ter mnst call misfits, the foundation to these was laid (and can be traced back to this point) by misplacing B, or front of ai'm scye line.

To i^rove this, we take the projiortioned size of a 36 inch breast, — and in this we have the follow- ing measures : From centre of back to front of arm scye llf inches, and from this i>oint to cen- tre of breast 9 inches.

Now, take for instance the so called erect fann with the same breast measure, 30 inches :— and, when measured, we find the distance from centi'e of back to front of arm scye, or B line, (say lOf inches), and from